Associate Professor of Tokai University, CEATEC Pavilion in industry-university exchanges Electrodes for fuel cells conductive CNT / PTFE composite membrane technology introduced

Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering of Tokai University associate professor Yoshiyuki 2008, September 30 – October 4, in the Makuhari Messe (Chiba City) was held in a comprehensive cutting-edge IT and electronics exhibition “CEATEC JAPAN” (Combined Exhibition of Advanced Technologies) in the Pavilion’s industry-university exchanges, electrodes for fuel cell technology as “conductive CNT / PTFE-coated metal composite membrane separator to the development of” Introduction to the exhibition.

Associate Professor polymer electrolyte fuel cell electrode (separator), a carbon nanotube (CNT) and fluorine resin (PTFE) complex consists of a conductive coating film by the electrode surface to prevent corrosion of the fuel Improve the efficiency of the batteries can power. In addition, the membrane electrode coated with a direct-type fuel cell (DMFC) that can also be applied.

Polymer electrolyte fuel cell, a membrane electrode complex (MEA) across the hydrogen and oxygen to generate electricity by chemical reaction. Voltage, MEA between the two sides of the carbon electrodes arises. The new electrode (separator), and the extraction of electricity, hydrogen or oxygen supply on the part of the MEA.

Performance verification, the stainless steel electrode “conductive CNT / PTFE composite film,” If you do not, and if there are comparisons with.

Stainless steel electrode (left),
conductive CNT / PTFE composite membrane electrode coated with stainless steel
Source:Associate Professor of Tokai University

Stainless steel electrode and

Conductive CNT / PTFE-coated composite membranes
Fabricated using electrodes
Fuel cells obtained from the current – voltage,

Current – Output power characteristics.
Source:Associate Professor of Tokai University

Open circuit voltage of the fuel cell, “both of 0.8V and a film seen by RARETAKATTA change,” he said.

On the other hand, fuel cells and increase the output from the current, both of which have reduced output voltage, composite electrode coated with a film that can suppress the decrease, the membranes that gave the maximum output of fuel cells, 2.7W (The film is not, 1.7W), and the effect has been confirmed. The “conductive CNT / PTFE composite membrane,” the MEA and fuel cell electrode inside the electrical contact between the resistance and a decrease in the fuel cell’s internal resistance was reduced according to the analysis.

Typically, this electrode (separator) materials, metals such as stainless steel is used. When the fuel cell power generation, in the vicinity of the electrode, causing the water, and fuel cells from the inside to be acidic, metal corrosion by the MEA and the higher the contact resistance is a problem. The CNT and the electrode coated with PTFE composite material by way prevented corrosion has devised.

“Conductive CNT / PTFE composite membrane”, respectively, in water distributed in advance and how to disperse a mixture of liquid has been fabricated. CNT is that a strong cohesive, CNT dispersion solution for the distribution of cellulose is the addition of auxiliaries. PTFE and mixing ratio of CNT, CNT concentration (weight percent) and more than 10 percent, to improve conductivity and also make sure that the (PTFE, the extremely low conductivity).

CNT and a mixture of PTFE membrane conductivity.
CNT by changing the concentration of the mixture film was fabricated.

Source:Associate Professor of Tokai University

The coating on the glass substrate, the film fired at temperatures of 350 centigrade, high mechanical strength, acid and sulfuric acid corrosion, but not in the mood to see. In addition, the contact angle of water and 110 degrees, and is hydrophobic.

This time, “conductive CNT / PTFE composite film” made of stainless steel electrode (the effective area of 40mmx40mm, thickness of 1mm. Pore diameter of 3mm to 23 locations opening in the structure) coating on the surface of the fuel cell has been created (Hole, the supply of hydrogen and oxygen to the MEA).

* MEA: complex membrane electrode
Electrolyte fuel cell membrane electrode and, in general, as a joint production of the complex. That is, each of the three-dimensional structure respond by interfacial reaction to a change in velocity, the individual can not be manufactured. Such a complex, in general MEA (Membrane and ElectrodeAssembly) call. MEA, the polymer electrolyte fuel cell membrane electrode used to call complex parts, NAFION (electrolyte) membrane supported on both sides of the platinum catalyst thermocompression carbon fiber structure of the electrodes.

(Bureau of Industry-Academia Collaboration =
Tatsuki Shigeru Sakai Hisashi Producer)

Posted under Fuel Cells

This post was written by admin on October 16, 2008


2009 home sales in April published a fuel cell, Tokyo Gas Co.

Tokyo Gas, 2009 April (tentative) from the sale of fuel cells for home use “ENE FARM (ENEFAMU)”, October 7-10 was held at Shinjuku Park Tower, “Life Design Exhibition’08 , “Was published. The fuel cell system and the impact on the environment as well as the large-scale stationary fuel cell demonstration project to apply advanced fuel cell has set up a family with the adoption of the cases presented to the panel.

Oct. 7-10 was held at Shinjuku Park Tower, “Design for Living’08″ exhibition (Photo: Tokyo Gas)

ENEFAMU “fuel-cell unit” consists of two units. Fuel-cell unit, removing hydrogen from city gas, a chemical reaction with oxygen in the air to generate electricity. The chemical reactions that occur when using hot water to build and earn. Made of electrical appliances in the home can be used in the water bath, shower, kitchen and hot water use.

Patterns of energy demand at home as a data storage will continue to function. Therefore, the lifestyle will be combined with energy-saving operation. The amount of power, such as tanks installed in the kitchen to check on the included remote control. Suddenly need a large amount of hot water when the heat source to be backed up by aircraft.

Power is supplied from a combination of electricity and water heaters compared to the traditional family in general, the 31 percent reduction in energy consumption. Energy utilization rate improved to 41 points from 37 percent to 78 percent. CO2 emissions will lead to a reduction of 45 percent. This 2kw-class residential solar power generation system when installed, and is almost the same effect.

ENEFAMU of Tokyo Gas, the company’s Panasonic is made by Ballard and Ebara. Is roughly the same specifications. In the case of Panasonic products, the size of the fuel cell units W780 x D400 x H860mm,the unit W750 x D480 x H1883mm, both weighing 125kg. The installation space and a width of 1.2 x height of 3.3 x depth of about 2.3m will be required. The price will be around 3 million yen. The country will get a subsidy from the user side, so the actual amount paid will be about 200 million yen.

article in the current prices are approximate. We determined by the amount of aid from countries where the product price and the amount of the burden on the user side, until the release may change. Tokyo Gas was the overture to supplement it.

The photo on the left ENEFAMU made by Panasonic, and the right of the photo made by the ENEFAMU Ebara Ballard (Photo: Tokyo Gas)

Posted under Fuel Cells

This post was written by admin on October 16, 2008


DLR to successfully use a fuel cell involved in flight operations

The latest aviation forecast to rise steadily – hence the fuel consumption and the resulting pollution. Solutions to reduce pollutant emissions in air and ground operations are therefore urgently needed. These could be the fuel cell will make a substantial contribution: The new research aircraft ATRA of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), an Airbus A320, has successfully its first test flight with a fuel cell system, which is tentatively on the provision of emergency power supply was used.

Together with the Airbus project partners, the Institute for Technical Thermodynamics of the DLR aircraft with a fuel cell system equipped by Michelin. The fuel cell built for one hour over the emergency power supply – free of carbon dioxide and other pollutants. As part of the emergency care system that operates the pump of the hydraulic system, which in case of failure of the engines.

Fuel cell system of DLR ATRA
Fuel cell system of DLR ATRA

Side effect: fuel cell generates water in flight

Since the fuel cells for electricity production only uses hydrogen and oxygen, are no harmful exhaust. Instead, in addition to the finished product in the current electro-chemical process in the cell also water and heat, both may be on board an airplane well still be used. In the current test produced the fuel used ten liters of water. If the resulting water in the hydrological future of the aircraft, fed, it reduces the amount of water to be carried on simultaneously and thus weight and fuel consumption. In addition, the fuel cell has a high efficiency and low noise.

The emergency supply of the fuel cell also has the advantage that the aerodynamic properties of an airplane gliding not be affected and the performance regardless of aircraft speed and altitude remains constant. Both are disadvantages of today’s emergency systems where a so-called Ram Air Turbine (back pressure turbine) on the fuselage of the plane and extended through the Anstromung the necessary energy supplies.

Economic aspects but also make use of the fuel cell medium already interesting: Such a system is, for example, less maintenance-intensive and costly. In the first phase of the project were separate tanks for hydrogen and oxygen incorporated. The next step is to oxygen from ambient air are used, making the oxygen tank is dispensable. In the future, could also aboard the hydrogen from hydrocarbons available there (for example, kerosene) are produced.

 Pure elegance the DLR research aircraft ATRA
Pure elegance DLR ATRA

Fuel cells use goes into the DLR aerospace research

To the 20-kilowatt fuel cell in the cargo compartment that you can install, the DLR research aircraft initially equipped with a deck cargo loading. Then had the fuel system on the plane and its consumers are connected. Difficult tasks were here next to the construction of mobile infrastructure for supplies of fuel (hydrogen and oxygen) and the development and implementation of the approved measuring air with which the behavior of the fuel cell system during the flight observed and analyzed. Before the plane with fuel aboard for the first test flight could take off, the system had extensive tests on the ground in order for the operations necessary to ensure safety.

Because the hydraulic system to be controlled with an engine failure, the control surfaces must move, has been a focus of the tests carried out the drive of the ailerons, for which the six kilowatt fuel cell power must provide. Further tests related to the behavior of the fuel cells under normal flight conditions, that is appropriate for vibration, acceleration, different air pressures and temperatures. Also addressing the different electrical loads on the program.

DLR-Forschungsflugzeug A320 ATRA (Advanced Technologies Research Aircraft)
(Advanced Technologies Research Aircraft)

The work is part of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology funded project, with partners from industry and research since March last year, the use of fuel cells in aircraft to investigate. The positive test result marked an important milestone in the project and in the further research: It has been confirmed that the fuel cell is a promising option for on-board power supply on the plane represents.
Concerning the operation of the emergency generator is therefore beyond the integration of a multi-fuel cell system as the next step in the project plan. This is generated by the fuel cell-derived water on board continue to be, the system also provides electrical energy to supply the aircraft on the ground ready.

Posted under Fuel Cells

This post was written by admin on October 15, 2008


First published in the FCH JTI

The first call for project applications under the common enterprise and hydrogen fuel cells – (JU Fuel Cells and Hydrogen) on 8 October 2008 has been published.
FCH is a European public-private partnership of industry and research organizations from the European Technology Platform for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell (H2) have emerged.FCH JTI
The aim of the joint technology initiative is the development of fuel cell and hydrogen technologies in Europe and to accelerate its launch in the period from 2010 to 2020 to pave the way. The Joint Technology Initiative has a budget of EUR 1 billion for the period from 2008 to 2017.
The first tender for the budget-provided amounts to approximately 28 million. Submission deadline is 15 January 2009.
The call, as well as for the participation of all required documents can be found at.


Posted under Fuel Cells

This post was written by admin on October 14, 2008


Story of Nissan X-TRAIL FCV

The ultimate environmentally-friendly vehicles are called, is a fuel-cell cars = FCV fuel cell vehicle. Hydrogen as an energy source, and in the air in a fuel cell to react with oxygen, and get electrical energy. Reaction between hydrogen and oxygen to the are and take the “water” clean-only vehicle. Until now the environmental impact of the car and less than overwhelming, but right now I want to spread the car, but still have many hurdles.


Breakthroughs should be a lot of challenges in the future given the mobility of cars on the undoubtedly important. So Nissan is currently developing a test ride in the X-TRAIL FCV, including infrastructure, tried to track issues.

The dawn of the now departed FCV ceremony methanol reformer
In 1996, Nissan to develop fuel cell vehicles will start in earnest. Until then, the concept was announced and the technical, but the real action FCV cars of the 1990s as a starting point to say. In 1999 and started testing the vehicle. At the time, followed by financial difficulties have been developed in the MENAKATTA still in the development of the technology to determine the future of survival were considered.
RUNESSA vehicle at the time of the FCV based on the difference between now and reforming methanol fuel cells for expression.Quashi reforming methanol extract hydrogen fuel cells, how to use it, many automobile manufacturers Tricor. However, this method should present the FCV has almost disappeared. That improved technology Quashi difficult to extract hydrogen, and that will take time to start the neck. Quick-start the car and asked KAKAWA were successful, removing hydrogen reforming the Quashi, I would have been a time lag.

RUNESSA was based on the FCV. Methanol reformer at the time was a ceremony mainstream fuel cells

Based on the Xterra FCV. The current high-pressure hydrogen is the dominant expression

The automobile manufacturers from around the use of hydrogen to the vehicle itself, the current went on the style of FCV. Nissan as well, in terms of business partnership with Renault of France took five years to start a joint development program. At the time, had been sold in North America based on the Xterra was developing FCV high-pressure hydrogen-style. The United States in April 2001 and based in Sacramento, California, the highway has started running experiments.

V-shaped recovery and the birth of the X-TRAIL FCV

In 2002 the Japanese government and, finally, FCV to a full-fledged research and development, conducted by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry JHFC (Japan Hydrogen & FYUERUSERU demonstration project) started. Nissan also participate in JHFG course, the same year in December, leading to the current X-TRAIL FCV FCV to have been born. The products and technologies, recycling and environmental protection efforts of the mid-term environmental action plan decided, “Nissan Green Program 2005″ was because of the backing. Nissan’s V-shaped recovery will be realized.

The first X-TRAIL FCV

The first X-TRAIL FCV equipped with a lithium-ion batteries, and low-pressure hydrogen tanks for the 350 top-class performance. But the bottom line UTCFC fuel cells made by the United States. It was used by Ballard’s fuel-cell technology, but did not disclose any of the companies would have been better off UTCFC, but it is the heart of its development of fuel cells was a long-cherished wish of the Nissan.

To develop its own fuel cell

Its development of fuel cell in December 2005. A stable financial health, Nissan has returned to power to realize it was happening. In Yokosuka, Kanagawa Prefecture, Nissan Oppama (Oops PAMA) in the factory test track in a test ride and had just published a fuel cell research facilities. Both the manufacturer in this area only in the most advanced technology, development of the site to publish was unprecedented in the unusual.

Oppama plant in fuel cell research facility in 2005, when the public. These unusual to public facilities in the state this photo of the car are to evaluate the stack

Large single cell Evaluation of the low temperature at the time and equipment. Announced in August 2008 of the new Honda V Flow stack stack, as well as by the use of metal separator performance. Even in sub-zero temperatures to start with the plan said. In the winter of the season demonstrated in laboratory experiments Rikubetsu in Hokkaido, seem to be

Fuel cells and the polymer membrane is the heart of the test separator is also

This year over such research, its high-performance fuel cell stack is made

The exterior of the X-TRAIL FCV was announced in the 2003 model and does not change much, but the contents of attention. Developed in-house fuel cell stack has been the biggest topic. The size of the stack and 03 made by UTCFC equipped model than the stack, the smaller what is about 60 percent are successful. In addition to power generation capacity of 90kW to 63kW and is greatly improved. The maximum speed of 150km / h to improve. In addition, this model of the high-pressure hydrogen storage tank is 15 percent smaller in spite of its stack made to improve efficiency in power generation, 370km achieved over the range. This fuel cell vehicle at the time of the top rank. News of the stack with its development and at the same time, Nissan 700 and the pressure of the high-pressure hydrogen tank will be mounted. This range is 1.4 times the previous increase to more than 500km. And a range of practical issues were also on the end.

Nissan announced on August 6, a new fuel cell stack developed

Vehicle testing about 10 years from the start of the first test ride again in the X-TRAIL FCV

Ride in a Nissan X-TRAIL FCV is a long time, the Nissan headquarters in Ginza gallery, as usual, came without a sound. Precisely because of the rain on the test drive, loaded with tires churn up the water to hear noise is not silent at all, compared to regular gasoline and overwhelmingly peaceful. Is obvious, such as engine noise and exhaust sound, not sling oneself in front of me stopped running.

The streets of Ginza emerged in the X-TRAIL FCV

The predecessor based on X-TRAIL (T30) remained essentially announced in 2005 to model and the mechanism has not changed, he said. And to turn on the ignition system to start in a moment. The stack is abnormal and there is no leakage of hydrogen systems are checked, but most ended up in the moment before the start of the preparation time to be almost equal to that. Even gasoline from the car started to change rider is not uncomfortable. However, you can start a “READY” illuminates the character to remain silent. Hybrid car engines start even if you do not remain silent, but there is no such person in the car that exposure remains a quiet car will be a surprise.

Turn on the ignition system from the start until the next screen

After a moment, the instrument panel to the “READY” lights of the characters

However, it often only hear sound coming from the car. This is in the air compressor in order to send the sound of a fuel cell. As noted earlier, the hydrogen and oxygen fuel cells are electrochemical reaction to the system. In order to supply oxygen in the air compressor is not sent. D in the normal range as a lever to select the accelerator choose, as most push forward without sound. Depending on the accelerator of meter rise in the power of the instrument panel. On the accelerator and go Torque and jerk to accelerator to find out. Big torque at low rotational motor can accelerate the typical sense. In the sense of acceleration is extremely smooth, even acceleration on the accelerator operation is not uncomfortable.

A vehicle information display screen. However, after the system starts running before the start of the state. Batteries and fuel cells to power the catchment

When you start running, the power meter to rise

The car in the city’s noise around the large, self-car sound system not hear the most. Unfortunately the rain when it was test-driving, driving on the sound system is almost drowned out the sound could not confirm that. FCV so quiet that it’s running. When you test drive before the track was dry, so the sound of the compressor from the inverter and other high-frequency sound to be heard slightly, but could not confirm such a high-frequency sounds.

I ran faster and faster capital region would not complain about the acceleration performance. Frequently it the accelerator to accelerate the response, RAKURAKU overtaking is also accelerating. A long-term acceleration of the motor torque is unique. Heavy vehicles are heavier for the ride is a little hard to feel that, in common use, and the problem seems to be in such terms. If it is practical and what seems there is no problem once it’s completed. But, hard as the car approached the car market is to some extent, the infrastructure for the supply of hydrogen, another hurdle is high.

The charge of hydrogen fuel stations in the future I see

Currently the development of the automobile manufacturers are competing in the FCV, many of them are using compressed hydrogen. JHFC hydrogen stations in Japan and also to build infrastructure has been verified. Hydrogen station near the city center in a six-place fixed, mobile and two hydrogen filling stations. These different types of hydrogen stations, and the Senju hydrogen station, LPG (liquefied propane) gas or city break type Quashi extract hydrogen. This is your interview, Ariake hydrogen station to the storage of liquid hydrogen to be sure, but compressed hydrogen gas to supply the type FCV.

Ariake Hydrogen Station

Ariake hydrogen station near Odaiba, Showa Shell Sekiyu K.K., and is run by Iwatani International. How hydrogen stations and hydrogen supply, depending on the type of the two main groups. “Offsite type” is called a hydrogen station is made out of hydrogen, the type carried by tankers. “On-site type” called to the station, such as gasoline and LPG Quashi Kai, the type that produce hydrogen is in place. This type of off-site coverage will be provided at Ariake hydrogen station, Senju hydrogen station type, such as on-site.

Liquid hydrogen tank. Occurred in the coke furnace steel plant, “deputy prime water” is carried, will be stored here. 10000L in volume, about the pressure in the tank is kept to 0.3MPa

Look to the left of the box unit of liquid hydrogen booster. Will be supplied from the liquid hydrogen tank and booster to 40MPa. Then, in the center of the carburetor, gas and liquid hydrogen. Right photo, below minus 253 ℃ liquefied hydrogen is supplied through the pipe

The first side of the car, filling the mouth and bitten on the ground (left), there is no leakage of hydrogen and then check whether the (central). To the right of the car and filling the junction of the nozzle

Merge To fill the mouth (left), pull the lever to improve the junction of the sealed (center). Dispenser filled with a touch panel and start the operation (right)

Ariake hydrogen station, occurred in the furnace of steel, “deputy prime water” is used. This is a liquefied station. Liquefied gas and new energy to be used, but still carry the gas is too bad because it is efficient. However, the filling of liquid hydrogen in the FCV (emphasis) to have a loss. Return liquid to gaseous hydrogen, and up to 350 compressed air pressure in the process lost 20 out of a few percent. These losses will have to lose. And the station also important to reduce construction costs. The use of hydrogen in a variety of laws and regulations or not, and the result has been a rise in costs by 2015 the construction of hydrogen filling stations to reduce costs to 200 million yen is the goal. The current gas station construction in tens of millions of yen compared to, it still shows a high hurdle. This hydrogen station is expected to take one, which is a good way to verify that the current phase. The number of hydrogen stations tend to just have to look into the current phase of a proven, the next step is still ahead.

Vaporization of liquid hydrogen booster when you go to the recovery of the compressor BOIRUOFUGASU (left) and the accumulator machine (right)

In the hydrogen station, in addition to the accumulation of knowledge management, the ministry of natural resources and low-carbon demonstration experiment. Because of the accumulation of data, or a panel of the dispenser, as well as the amount of hydrogen filling, liquid hydrogen pumps and hydrogen power consumption in the amount of loss appear

Another important how the hydrogen is produced. FCV is the ultimate eco-car, but creating hydrogen from fossil fuels are not a true Eco. Such as solar and wind power generation using renewable energy to produce hydrogen is not required. Of course, in a period of transition from fossil fuels to produce hydrogen that could have no choice but to use renewable energy in the future it will be necessary. The ultimate in solar cells and wind power and hydrogen to create a self-generating, private cars and hydrogen filling (filling).

Nissan FCV will be the next generation?

This year, the first time in eight years in Japan summit was held (Summit). The 34th Summit, July 7-9held in Hokkaido, but the auto manufacturers to environment-related technology and a series of new fuel-cell vehicles in the announcement. Nissan X-TRAIL and clean-diesel is sent to the, FCV did not talk about.
After about a month from the summit on August 6, announced the new fuel cell stack, and at the same time in 2010 and to introduce a new hybrid electric vehicles (rear-wheel drive), has announced a new lithium-ion batteries. After a month on September 5, the world’s first SHIRIKONKABAITO (SiC) devices for use in vehicles has to barter. EV FCV as well as a series of related technology has advanced. In particular, the conventional fuel cell separators made of carbon change from the thin metal of the performance. The volume of the stack from the traditional 90L and 68L and the much smaller, 90kW output from 130kW to improve rapidly. In addition, the amount of platinum used in 1 / 2 and at the same time to reduce the durability of catalyst is also increasing. It’s worth noting the future, this new stack and a new lithium-ion batteries, SHIRIKONKABAITO (SiC) devices used in the inverter, is the introduction of next-generation FCV.
FCV is currently based on the next generation of Nissan cars and has been selected to stage in the near future with new models such as the stack is likely to appear. A stack of high-performance X-TRAIL than that of a large vehicle that can be used, so the introduction of the new Murano FCV may be. FCV still in the research phase, but the turning point in 2015. The hydrogen station in 2015 to move to a commercial phase.

Posted under Fuel Cells, Hydrogen Cars, Hydrogen Vehicles

This post was written by admin on October 12, 2008

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