Hydrogen Motor

Fuel cell

Fuel cell

A fuel cell is a device that uses hydrogen (or hydrogen-rich fuel) and oxygen to create electricity. Fuel cells are more energy-efficient than combustion engines and the hydrogen used to power them can come from a variety of sources. If pure hydrogen is used as a fuel, fuel cells emit only heat and water, eliminating concerns about air pollutants or greenhouse gases.
fuel cell

PEM Fuel Cell

One of the more common types of fuel cell is the Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The PEM fuel cell consists of an electrolyte membrane sandwiched between an anode (negative electrode) and a cathode (positive electrode).
The PEM is a thin, solid, organic compound, typically the consistency of plastic wrap and about as thick as 2 to 7 sheets of paper. This membrane functions as an electrolyte: a substance that conducts charged ions (in this case protons), but does not conduct electrons. This allows the solution to conduct electricity. This membrane must be kept moist to conduct particles through it.

PEM Fuel Cell

H2 and anode
Hydrogen fuel (H2) is channeled to the anode, where the catalyst separates the hydrogen's negatively charged electrons from the positively charged protons

PEM Fuel Cell

PEM

The membrane allows the positively charged protons to pass through to the cathode, but not the negatively charged electrons.

The negatively charged electrons must flow around the membrane through an external circuit. This flow of electrons forms an electrical current.

PEM Fuel Cell
Cathode:
At the cathode, the negatively charged electrons and positively charged hydrogen ions (protons) combine with oxygen to form water (H20) and heat.
PEM Fuel Cell
Membrane-type/ FeaturePolymer electrolyteAlkalischer electrolytePhosphorus ä UreMolten carbonateOxide ceramic
TitlePEM AFC PAFCMCFC SOFC
Electrolytesolid organic polymer Polyperfluorsulfonsäure (NAFION)30-50% solution of potassium hydroxide in a matrixconcentrated phosphoric acid in a PTFE matrixPromoter: MgO, LiAlO 2 Promoter: MgO, LiAlO 2 Ionenleiter: Li 2 CO 3 , K 2 CO 3 , Na 2 CO 3 Ion leader: Li 2 CO 3, K 2 CO 3, Na 2 CO 3ixed-doped yttrium zirconia (YSZ)
Anode materialPromoter: Carbon

Catalyst: Platinum

 

Promoter: nickel, carbon, PTFE, NiO

Catalyst: silver, platinum / palladium

 

Promoter: PTFE bound Carbon

Catalyst: Platinum

Platinum, palladium, nickelNi-YSZ-Cermet
Cathode materialPromoter: Carbon

Catalyst: Platinum

Promoter: carbon, PTFE, NiO

Catalyst: silver, gold, platinum / palladium

Promoter: PTFE bound Carbon

Catalyst: Platinum

Ag 2 O, lithiiertes NiOStrontium-doped Lanthanmanganat
Operating temperature60 - 100 ° C 90 - 100 ° C 175 - 200 ° C 600 - 1000 ° C 600 - 1000 ° C 
AdvantagesThe solid electrolyte reduces corrosion, easier manageability, low operating temperature, rapid operational readiness very fast cathodic reaction, therefore, high performance Hydrogen as a fuel does not have high purity, up to 85% efficiency in heat and power generation high efficiency, greater choice of fuels and lower demands on the catalysts the solid electrolyte reduces corrosion, easier manageability, high efficiency, greater choice of fuels and lower demands on the catalysts 
DisadvantagesLow operating temperature requires powerful and expensive catalysts Carbon dioxide from fuel must be removed completely Platinum catalysts, low power, high weight high temperatures cause corrosion, high demands on cell structure high demands on cell structure 
ApplicationPortable power generation Military, aerospace Power generation for transportation Power generation in general Power generation in general